Aspartame - An artificial sweetening agent derived from aspartic acid.

Aspartic Acid - A crystalline amino acid found naturally in sugar beets and sugar cane.

Benzyl alcohol - Made synthetically from benzyl chloride which is derived from toluene (a tar oil).

Cellulose - (ethylcellulose, methylcellulose, hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl, microcrystalline) – Obtained from fibrous plant material (woody pulp or chemical cotton).

Cetyl alcohol - Derived from a fat source (spermaceti, which is a waxy substance from the head of the sperm whale).

Croscarmellose sodium - An internally cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose for use as a disintegrant in pharmaceutical formulations.  Comes from wood pulp or cotton fibers to form carboxymethylcellulose.  It contains no sugar or starch.

Dextrans - Partially hydrolyzed corn or potato starch.

Dextrates - Mix of sugars resulting from the controlled enzymatic hydrolysis of starch.

Dextrins - Result from the hydrolysis of starch by heat or hydrochloric acid (from corn).  It can also be obtained from wheat, rice or tapioca.

Dextrose - Powdered corn starch.

Fructose - Obtained naturally from fruits or honey; hydrolyzed cane or beet sugar.

Gelatin - Obtained from the skin, white connective and bones of animals (by boiling skin, tendons, ligaments, bones, etc with water).

Glycerin - Historically, glycerin (also known as glycerol), was made the following ways:

  Saponification (a type of chemical process) of fats and oils in the manufacturing of soaps

  Hydrolysis of fats and oils through pressure and superheated steam

  Fermentation of beet sugar molasses in the presence of large amounts of sodium sulfite

  Today its is made mostly from propylene (a petroleum product)

Glycerols - Obtained from fats and oils as byproducts in the manufacture of soaps and fatty acids (may also be listed as mono-glycerides or di-glycerides).

Glycols - Products of ethylene oxide gas.

Hypromellose – A brand of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (see cellulose).

Iron oxide (rust) - Used as a coloring agent.

Kaolin - A clay-like substance.

Lactilol - Lactose derivative; a sugar alcohol.

Lactose - Also known as milk sugar, is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a filler or binder for the manufacture of coated pills and tablets.   Commercially produced from cow's milk.

Maltodextrins - A starch hydrolysate that is obtained from corn in the United States but can also be extracted from wheat, potato or rice.

Mannitol - Derived from monosaccharides (glucose or mannose).

Methyl Paraben – Comes from the combination of denatured wood alcohol and benzoic acid (benzoic acid occurs naturally in cherry bark, raspberries, tea, anise and cassia bark).

Polysorbates - Chemically altered sorbitol (a sugar alcohol).

Polyvinyl alcohol – A water soluble synthetic alcohol (synthesized by hydrolysis of polyvinyl acetate).

Povidone (crospovidone, copovidone) - synthetic polymers

Pregelatinized starch - A starch that has been chemically or mechanically processed.  The starch can come from corn, wheat, potato or tapioca.

Shellac - A natural wax product used in tablet or capsule coating.

Sodium lauryl sulfate – A derivative of the fatty acids of coconut oil.

Sodium starch glycolate - Sodium salt of carboxymethyl ether of starch. Usually from potato but can be from corn, wheat or rice.

Stearates (calcium, magnesium) - Derived from stearic acid (a fat; occurs as a glyceride in tallow and other animal fats and oils, as well as some vegetables; prepared synthetically by hydrogenation of cottonseed and other vegetable oils).

Sucrose - Sugar also known as refined sugar, beet sugar or cane sugar.

Titanium dioxide - Chemical not derived from any starch source used as a white pigment.

Triacetin – A derivative of glycerin (acetylation of glycerol).

Silcon dioxide – A dispersing agent made from silicon.